Sociology and political science are closely deeply related. Sociology studies all aspects of society on the other hand political science studies political aspects of the society i.e. political intuitions.
Political Science is the study of the state whereas civics studies citizenship. A sociologist while studying the structure and functioning of groups cannot ignore the political organizations, pressure groups and political institutions both at the lower and higher levels. Political behavior is of much importance to the sociologists. The scientific knowledge of social control and its effects on the members of the society makes it necessary for the students of Sociology to understand the political system in vogue, or the distribution of power and authority (both formal informal) in the country. The political system does affect the group life. For instance, communism, democracy and dictatorship affect group life differently.
Political science mainly deals with political theory and Government Administration alone whereas, sociology refers to the study of all aspects of society. Sociology stresses interrelationship between social institutions including Government whereas, political science deals mainly with the Government. Despite the contents and emphasis on political theory and government, some political scientists are inclined towards behavioral studies of politics to have a comprehensive view of the phenomenon under study. In sociology, political institutions are studied primarily as constituent parts of society and social processes.
Differences between Sociology and Political Science
- It is a science of society.
- It studies all kind of societies organized as well as unorganized.
- It has a wider scope.
- It studies man as fundamentally a social animal.
- It is general social science. Hence it studies all kinds of forms or social relations in a general way.
- The approach of sociology is sociological. It follows its own methods in addition to the scientific method, in its investigation.
- Lastly, sociology is quite young. It is not even two centuries old.
- Political science is a science of state and government.
- It studies only the politically organized societies.
- It has a narrow field.
- It studies man as a political animal.
- It is a special social science, because it concentrates only on the human relationship which are political in character.
- The approach of political science is political. It has its own methods of study like the historical method, philosophical method, comparative and statistical methods.
- Political science is an older science comparatively. It has centuries of history of its own right from days of Plato or Cicero.