Now, let us discuss whether sociology is a science or not? We know that the organized and verified knowledge which is obtained through scientific methods Experimental Method, Statistical Method, Historical Method, Comparative Method. Survey Method. etc. by using scientific tools (microscope. telescope, ruler. balance. thermometer. etc. In case of natural science or interviews, questionnaires, observations, sampling. etc. in case of social science is a science. As in case of Sociology the same scientific procedure is adopted for data collection and obtaining knowledge. therefore, Sociology is a science.
As far as the objections of the opponents i.e. those who do not accept Sociology as a science, are concerned still Sociology as a science can safely be defended.
Laboratory Experiment is not Necessary to Constitute a Science
All the natural sciences do not employ laboratory experimentation. Astronomy. for example, cannot experiment with its materials. The heavenly bodies cannot he brought to put in a laboratory. If Astronomy. in spite of its inability to experiment with its material in laboratory could be termed as science, there is no justification to deny the title of science to Sociology.
It is true that personal like and dislike may influence the work of a researcher but a sociologist is aware and trained person. He is fully aware of this defect and always adopts non-prejudicial approach. It is his first and foremost duty to be impartial and get correct and precise information from suitable people who have full awareness of their problems and necessities, and of their environment and social life. A sociologist always tries to follow the scientific ways of research and hence the possibility of any mistake becomes less and less.
Sociology uses Scientific Method
In the field of Sociology, though experimental method of research cannot he directly applied but there are other scientific methods and techniques of research which a sociologist employs for the data collection. "Two basic methods of scientific investigation i.e. observation and comparison are readily available to the sociologist and he uses them all the time.
Sociology does frame laws and attempts to predict, though it is a difficult thing that its prediction man not be accurate. Moreover, no science can boast of making infallible predictions. Many of the theories established by the other sciences had to be modified with the passage of time. In some areas of social life prediction to a limited extent has been possible and as Sociology matures and comes to understand more fully the principles underlying human behaviour, it will be in a better position to make accurate predictions.
In this “essay sociology is a science” if we analyze the arguments of those who do not accept Sociology as a science we will conclude that their approach to science is narrow and rigid. They limit the scope of science only to natural sciences. But it is wrong to presume that only subjects like Physics. Chemistry or Botany are sciences and all other subjects do not fall under the category of Science. A science essentially means scientific study of subject. According to Young and Mack. "science is an overall method of gaining knowledge". Moreover, those who treat Sociology as a science do not claim that it is a natural science like Physics, Chemistry or Biology but they assert that the subject is a social science which scientifically studies the society.